Of all the white wine grape varietals, surely the one which has spread the furthest and is most widely appreciated is the Chardonnay. This green skinned grape is now grown all over the Old and New Worlds, from New Zealand to the Americas, from England to Chile, and is one of the first varietals people think of when considering white wine grapes. Perhaps this is because of its huge popularity which reached a peak in the 1990s, thanks to new technologies combining with traditional methods to bring the very best features out of the Chardonnay grape, and allow its unique qualities to shine through. Most fine Chardonnay wines use a process known as malolactic fermentation, wherein the malic acids in the grape juice are converted to lactic acids, allowing a creamier, buttery nature to come forward in the wine. No grape varietal is better suited to this process than Chardonnay, which manages to balance these silky, creamy notes with fresh white fruit flavors beautifully.
Region: South Australia
The enormous wine region of South Australia covers a huge area, and is bordered by all other mainland Australian states. The region itself is split into six key sub-regions, Barossa Zone, Far North Zone, The Fleurieu Zone, Mount Lofty Ranges Zone and the Limestone Coast Zone. All have a range of climatic conditions within them, and as such, produce a wide variety of wine types and styles using a range of different grape varietals. South Australia holds the country's oldest wineries, with a viticultural history which dates back to the mid 19th century, when the country was first being properly established. Early settlers noticed that, with the help of some irrigation, the higher altitude areas of the region and the valley sides were ideal for vineyard cultivation. Today, the region produces an enormous amount of wine, including Australia's famous Shiraz and Chardonnay examples, which are enjoyed all over the world.
Whilst every Australian state has some level of wine production, it is in South Australia and on the island of Tasmania where the finest wines are made to the highest quantities. Here, the scorching Australian sun is a little tamer, and the heat is tempered by brisk oceanic winds, making the climate of these regions ideal for vineyard cultivation. The Tamar Valley on Tasmania has been making waves internationally in recent years, as both Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grape varietals are thriving there and resulting in hugely flavorful wines, which are at once distinctly Australian, yet remain unique and interesting enough to surprise and impress. Elsewhere in the country, the Syrah grape (known locally as Shiraz) reigns supreme, as the long, hot summers allow these grapes to ripen fully and lend their intensely fruit-forward character to the ruby red Australian wines, which have such international appeal.