Porto, situated in the Douro Valley of Portugal, has long been recognized as a vitally important center for viticulture and wine production. Of course, the city itself is most readily associated with the beautifully aromatic and utterly delicious Port wines, which have been continually popular around the world since the 18th century. The wineries in and around Porto know that their terroir is highly special, with a wonderful mix of gravelly and clay based soils, packed full of minerals carried by the river that flows through it. This, combined with the hot and sunny climate, creates perfect conditions for high quality grape cultivation, and there are dozens of varietals which thrive in and around Porto, many of which are used for making the famous fortified wines.
Portugal has been an important center for wine production ever since the Phoenicians and Carthaginians discovered that the many native grape varietals that grow in the country could be cultivated for making excellent wines. After all, Portugal has something of an ideal wine producing climate and terrain; lush green valleys, dry, rocky mountainsides and extremely fertile soil helped by long, hot summers and Atlantic winds. Today, such a climate and range of terroir produces an impressive variety of wines, with the best wines said to be coming out of the Douro region, the Alentejo and the Colares region near Lisbon. Portugal has an appellation system two hundred years older than France's, and much effort is made by regulating bodies to ensure that the quality of the country's produce remains high, and the wines remain representative of the regions they are grown in.