Sauternes is a region of Bordeaux, France, and is well known for its sweet white wines. This region is located near a river, and the resulting misty conditions helps breed a "noble rot" - pourriture noble. This is a type of fungus. Early winemakers found that this rot turned the flavor of the grapes into a rich, honey flavor, with a deep brown color. This wine can age almost indefinitely.
Sauternes are primary made with the semillon grape, along with small amounts of sauvignon and muscadelle. It is difficult to make a Sauternes. The rot must be of just the right level, and only the most affected grapes are picked. The grapes get up to 14% alcohol in them - this kills off the yeast, leaving behind much of the sugar that normally would be fermented away.
Flavors in sauternes range from apricot, peach, pineapple, and vanilla. The wines are smooth and creamy. More so than many other wine types, vintage in Sauternes is extremely important. The weather conditions can make or break and entire year's crop in this region.