The city and region of Porto in Portugal has long been regarded as one of the most important wine producing areas on earth, and home to many of the world's most distinctive and characterful wines and fortified wines. So important was it, in the 18th century, it became part of the third ever protected wine region, following one in Hungary, and one in Italy. The wineries of Porto have generations of experience and expertise when it comes to working their land, and the fertile valley sides in the Douro region where Porto is found offers plenty of opportunities for growing a wide range of grape varietals. Most commonly, Porto wineries cultivate Tinta Barroca, Tinta CÃ£o, Tempranillo, Touriga Francesa, and Touriga Nacional grapes, as these are the primary varietals used in the production of Porto's famous Port wines.
Portugal has been an important center for wine production ever since the Phoenicians and Carthaginians discovered that the many native grape varietals that grow in the country could be cultivated for making excellent wines. After all, Portugal has something of an ideal wine producing climate and terrain; lush green valleys, dry, rocky mountainsides and extremely fertile soil helped by long, hot summers and Atlantic winds. Today, such a climate and range of terroir produces an impressive variety of wines, with the best wines said to be coming out of the Douro region, the Alentejo and the Colares region near Lisbon. Portugal has an appellation system two hundred years older than France's, and much effort is made by regulating bodies to ensure that the quality of the country's produce remains high, and the wines remain representative of the regions they are grown in.