The ancient city of Porto, capital of Portugal, has a wine history which stretches back over the millennia, and helped shape the world of wines as we know it today. Sailors and explorers leaving Porto helped introduce grapevines to the New World in the 16th century, and thanks to the vast variety of vines which grow around Porto, they had plenty of varietals to choose from. Indeed, over a hundred grape varietals are permitted by law for use in Porto's famous Port wines, although only five are commonly grown and processed in the impressive and historic Port wineries. The Douro river valley which Porto's finest vineyards are situated in is in fact one of the oldest protected wine regions in the world, and thanks to its mineral rich soils and wonderful climate, is widely regarded as one of the world's most ideal locations for viticulture.
Most of us are quick to associate Portugal primarily with the excellent fortified wines which come out of the Porto area, but there is much more to Portuguese viticulture than just this. Perhaps the most popular still wines the country produces are the varieties from the Vinho Verde region, which uses grapes that do not achieve high doses of sugar, meaning the wines are at their best when young and full of natural, springy fruit flavors The wines of the Douro region have undergone many transformations in their flavor and character over the centuries; once regarded as a bitter wine, the exporters experimented with fortifying the wine with brandy. After several centuries, vintners found a balance in the modern age which is at once reminiscent of Port wine, yet with the structure and character closer to other fine Portuguese wines. Thanks to the appellation system of Portugal and the strict laws governing wine production, Portuguese wines continue to maintain their reputation for quality and the distinctive characteristics they carry.