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Whilst most of Australia consists of arid deserts and dense bushland, the oceanic coasts to the south of the country have a terrain and climate ideal for vine cultivation and wine production. It took several decades of failed attempts at the end of the 18th century in order to produce vines of a decent enough quality for making wine, but since those first false starts, the Australian wine industry has continued to grow and grow. Today, wine production makes up for a considerable part of the Australian economy, with exports in recent years reaching unprecedented levels and even overtaking France for the first time ever. Whilst the greatest successes in regards to quality have been the result of the Syrah grape varietal (known locally as Shiraz), Australia utilizes several Old World grapes, and has had fantastic results from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Riesling, Chardonnay and more. As the Australian passion for locally produced wine continues to develop, wineries have begun experimenting with a wider range of grape varietals, meaning that nowadays it isn't uncommon to find high quality Australian wines made from Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Tempranillo and Viognier, amongst many others.
Port wine is Portugal’s great gift to the world. Coming from the ancient harbour capital city of Porto and the surrounding Douro Valley region, Port wine has been made by Portuguese vintners for at least four hundred years, although viticulture has been continually happening in the area for well over two thousand years. Port is a fortified wine, meaning it is a wine which has been bolstered by the addition of grape brandy. Originally, this was used as a method of preservation, allowing the delicate Portuguese wines to survive the journey by sea to trading partners in the UK and France. However, the wonderful taste and unique character the fortification process lends to the wine soon became massively popular, and before long, this new wine style was a hit all across Europe.
Unlike some other fortified wines, Port is made by adding brandy before the wine itself has completed its fermentation. The result of this is that plenty of the grapes’ natural sweetness is maintained in the barrel, meaning it is exceptionally smooth and rounded on the palate. Port comes in many different styles - Tawny Port wines are prized for their richness and mellow character, Reserve and Late Bottled Ports are full of fruit flavor. Vintage Port is a complex, wonderful thing - capable of standing up to some of the finest wines in the world when it comes to depth of flavor and fascinating features.
South-Eastern Australia is a vast stretch of land which is recognized as a GI (Geographical Indication) wine region. It covers an entire third of the country, and the boundary on the west of the region is no less than 1250 miles long. As such, this enormous wine region is one of the most varied in the world, and includes mountain ranges, desert, rainforest and coastlines. It is in the coastal areas where most viticulture takes place, as the blazing heat of this part of the world is there tempered by the cooling ocean breezes and fogs which roll daily over the vineyards, allowing for more balance and acidity in the grapes which grow.
This part of Australia is typified by a bold and daring type of viticulture, with vintners here constantly looking at ways of pushing the boundaries and using new techniques to make the most of their fruit. Organic and Biodynamic farming has taken off in a big way, as Australian winemakers look for ways to express their unique land in the bottle. The vast majority of vines grown here are classic imported French grapes, including Semillon, Chardonnay, Shiraz, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, although lesser known varietals are increasing in popularity and prevalence.