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Whilst most of Australia consists of arid deserts and dense bushland, the oceanic coasts to the south of the country have a terrain and climate ideal for vine cultivation and wine production. It took several decades of failed attempts at the end of the 18th century in order to produce vines of a decent enough quality for making wine, but since those first false starts, the Australian wine industry has continued to grow and grow. Today, wine production makes up for a considerable part of the Australian economy, with exports in recent years reaching unprecedented levels and even overtaking France for the first time ever. Whilst the greatest successes in regards to quality have been the result of the Syrah grape varietal (known locally as Shiraz), Australia utilizes several Old World grapes, and has had fantastic results from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Riesling, Chardonnay and more. As the Australian passion for locally produced wine continues to develop, wineries have begun experimenting with a wider range of grape varietals, meaning that nowadays it isn't uncommon to find high quality Australian wines made from Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Tempranillo and Viognier, amongst many others.
Riesling grapes have been grown in and around central Europe for centuries, and over time, they became the lasting symbol of south Germany's ancient and proud wine culture. Whilst the reputation of German wines abroad has in the past been mixed, the Germans themselves take an enormous amount of pride in their wineries, and Riesling grapes have now spread around the globe, growing anywhere with the correct climate in which they can thrive. Riesling grape varietals generally require much cooler climatic conditions than many other white grapes, and they are generally considered to be a very 'terroir expressive' varietal, meaning that the features and characteristics of the terroir they are grown on comes across in the flavors and aromas in the bottle. It is this important feature which has allowed Riesling wines to be elevated into the category of 'fine' white wines, as the features of the top quality bottles are generally considered to be highly unique and offer much to interest wine enthusiasts.
South-Eastern Australia is a vast stretch of land which is recognized as a GI (Geographical Indication) wine region. It covers an entire third of the country, and the boundary on the west of the region is no less than 1250 miles long. As such, this enormous wine region is one of the most varied in the world, and includes mountain ranges, desert, rainforest and coastlines. It is in the coastal areas where most viticulture takes place, as the blazing heat of this part of the world is there tempered by the cooling ocean breezes and fogs which roll daily over the vineyards, allowing for more balance and acidity in the grapes which grow.
This part of Australia is typified by a bold and daring type of viticulture, with vintners here constantly looking at ways of pushing the boundaries and using new techniques to make the most of their fruit. Organic and Biodynamic farming has taken off in a big way, as Australian winemakers look for ways to express their unique land in the bottle. The vast majority of vines grown here are classic imported French grapes, including Semillon, Chardonnay, Shiraz, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, although lesser known varietals are increasing in popularity and prevalence.